Dense and Green

Architecture as Urban Ecosystem


(forthcoming 2019).

Future Cities Lab:
Indicia 02
Dense and Green Building Typologies

Lars Müller Publishers

(forthcoming 2018).

Dense and Green
Building Typologies

Architecture and Landscape Architecture Perspectives

Springer Nature

(forthcoming 2018).

Dense and Green
Building Typologies

Research, Policy and Practice Perspectives

Prof. Dr Thomas SCHROEPFER
Prof. Sacha MENZ

Springer Nature

In this book, academics, policy makers, developers, architects and landscape architects provide a systematic review of the environmental, social, economic and design benefits of dense and green building types in high-density urban contexts and discuss how these can support higher population densities, higher standards of environmental sustainability and enhanced live ability in future cities.

Time Space Existence
Dense and Green
Building Typologies:
Architecture as Urban Ecosystem:


Book from La Biennale di Venezia. The fourth edition of the biennial architecture exhibition “TIME SPACE EXISTENCE” presents a wide selection of works from architects, photographers, sculptors and universities from all over the world. In addition, projects realized in cooperation with institutions and museums. The participating architects and artists come from diverse cultural backgrounds and different career stages, i.e. established architects next to professionals whose works might be less known. What they have in common is their dedication to architecture in the broadest sense of their profession. The exhibition shows a vast spectrum of presentations (models, concepts, research outcomes, thoughts, dreams and ideas), placing classical architectural installations in dialogue with surprising artistic elements.

Future Cities Lab:
Indicia 01
Dense and Green Building Typologies

Prof. Dr Thomas SCHROEPFER

Lars Müller Publishers

This book, the first in a planned series, reports on the Future Cities Laboratory and its mission to shape sustainable future cities through science, by design, in place. It offers a global perspective on cities from the vantage point of Asia, where the laboratory is based. This view has particular significance today as the fortunes of Asia, the world’s most populous and rapidly urbanising continent, will also delineate the prospects of the planet.

Dense + Green
Innovative Building Types for Sustainable Urban Architecture

Prof. Dr Thomas SCHROEPFER


The integration of nature in architecture is a key concern of sustainability. However, all too often sustainable design is reduced to improving the energetic performance of buildings and the ornamental application of natural green. Dense + Green explores new architectural typologies that emerge from the integration of green components such as sky terraces, vertical parks and green facades, in high-density buildings. The book describes green strategies in a comparison across different design tasks and climate conditions. In-depth case studies on the most relevant building types, consistently presented with analytical drawings made exclusively for this book, are complemented by expert essays that demonstrate the current paradigm shift in the sustainable urban environment.

Public Space Evolution in High-Density Living
in Singapore

Ground and Elevated Public Space in Public Housing Precincts

Prof. Sacha MENZ

ETH Zürich

The results of the Singapore ETH Centre’s Module X research on public space evolution in high density living in Singapore have been published. Edited by Professor Sacha Menz, the book investigates the development of public spaces in state-funded residential contruction. Six housing examples are systematically examined, looking at both public space provision and its effect on social aspects.


Journal papers

Jonathan TAN, Richard BELCHER*, Hugh TAN, Ester SUEN, Sacha MENZ, Thomas SCHROEPFER. An experimental study of existing versus ‘cool’ materials and plants in exposed and shaded conditions on roof gardens. 2019. (in review).*co-first author

Richard BELCHER, Ester SUEN, Sacha MENZ, Thomas SCHROEPFER. Shared Landscapes Increase Apartment Selling Price. 2019. (in review).

Emek ERDOLU, Sacha MENZ, and Thomas SCHROEPFER. Green Typologies for Redefining the Interface: A Study on the Improvement of Public-Private Edges of High-Density Residential Megaplot in Singapore. The International Journal of Architectonic Spatial and Environmental Design, Champaign: Common Ground Research Networks, 2018. (forthcoming).

Richard BELCHER, Keren Sadanandan, Emmanuel GOH, Jie Yi CHAN, Sacha MENZ, Thomas SCHROEPFER. Vegetation on and around large-scale buildings positively influences native tropical bird abundance and bird species richness. Urban Ecosystems, October 2018,

Richard BELCHER, Ryan CHISHOLM. Tropical Vegetation and Residential Property Value: A Hedonic Pricing Analysis in Singapore. Ecological Economics, Volume 149, 26 March 2018,

Richard BELCHER, Lorenzo FORNASARI, Sacha MENZ, Thomas SCHROEPFER. Birds Use of Vegetated and Non-vegetated High-density Buildings—A Case Study of Milan. Journal of Urban Ecology, Volume 4, Issue 1, 7 March 2018,


Conference papers

Mayank KAUSHAL, Sacha MENZ, Thomas SCHROEPFER. Perception Study of Industry Pioneers on Dense and green Building Typologies. 55th International Federation of Landscape Architects (IFLA) World Congress 2018, Singapore, 18-21 July 2018. (forthcoming).

Ester SUEN, Richard N. BELCHER, Sacha MENZ, Thomas SCHROEPFER. Estimating leaf area index of urban trees from digital zenith cover photography: A framework on its application for urban practitioners. 55th International Federation of Landscape Architects (IFLA) World Congress 2018, Singapore, 18-21 July 2018. (forthcoming).

Jonathan K. N. TAN, Richard N. BELCHER, Sacha MENZ, Thomas SCHROEPFER. Comparing the surface temperatures of greenery and conventional materials—A field study of green infrastructure in Singapore. 55th International Federation of Landscape Architects (IFLA) World Congress 2018, Singapore, 18-21 July 2018. (forthcoming).

Yingying JIANG, Hengzhan LI, Christoph HOELSCHER, Sacha MENZ, Thomas SCHROEPFER. Physical Space Design Factors Affecting Pedestrian Movement on the Precinct Scale in Singapore. 11th Space Syntax Symposium. Lisbon, 3-7 July 2017.

Yingying JIANG, Stamatina RASSIA, Marie A. GLASER, Dominik BASTIANELLO. Public Spaces in High-Density Public Housing in Singapore. Asia Pacific Network for Housing Research (APNHR) Conference 2013. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 20-22 August 2013.



Prof. Dr Thomas SCHROEPFER, et al. The Future of Cities: Future Urban Typologies for Enhancing Liveability in Singapore. Singapore University of Technology and Design (SUTD), Lee Kuan Yew Centre for Innovative Cities (LKYCIC). Singapore, 2017.



Prof. Dr Thomas SCHROEPFER. “Dense and Green Building Typologies”. The Singapore Architect. August 2017.



“Can Singapore, the city in a garden, grow into a city in nature?”. Eco-Business, 19 September 2018. URL

“Hochhäuser: Das Leben in der Vertikale”. Kultureplatz, 12 September 2018. URL

“Singapore’s green buildings on show, an exhibition at the Venice Biennale shines the spotlight on some of the country’s eco-freindly structures”.The Business Times, 15 June 2018. URL

FCL Showcases Dense And Green Building Typologies In Venice

“Green the colour of money where property is concerned”.The Straits Times, 20 April 2018. URL

“Study: Increasing greenspace next to public housing can raise apartment selling price by 3%”. Zaobao, 20 April 2018. URL

“Increasing the greenspace next to public housing can raise the apartment selling price by 3%”. Channel8news, 19 April 2018. URL

“Homes near green spaces fetch higher prices: study”. Property Guru, 20 April 2018. URL

“HDB flat buyers would pay 3% more for a greener neighborhood”. The Edge Markets, 25 April 2018. URL

Es geht aufwärts – und das grün. NZZ-Verlagsbeilage “Zukunft Bauen”, 29 March 2018. Download PDF copy.

First “Dense and Green Building Typologies: Architecture as Urban Ecosystem”symposium held in Singapore. Southeast Asia Building November/December 2017 Issue, 1 November 2017. Download PDF copy.

“Dense, Green and Blue. Is Singapore Ready to be a ‘City in Nature’?”. Indesign Media Group, 20 September 2017.

Dense, Green and Blue. Is Singapore Ready to be a ‘City in Nature’?

“What’s the Cost of Dense and Green?”. Indesign Media Group, 20 September 2017.

What’s the Cost of Dense and Green?

“Toward Architecture as an Urban Ecosystem”. Indesign Media Group, 31 October 2017.

Toward Architecture as an Urban Ecosystem